MDE References


Published articles that apply, interpret, or discuss the mid-domain effect



Arita, H. T. 2005. Range size in mid-domain models of species diversity. J. Theor. Biol. 232:119-126.

Bachman, S., W. J. Baker, N. Brummitt, J. Dransfield, and J. Moat. 2004. Elevational gradients, area and tropical island diversity: an example from the palms of New Guinea. Ecography 27:299-310.

Bellwood, D. R., T. P. Hughes, S. R. Connolly, and J. Tanner. 2005. Environmental and geometric constraints on Indo-Pacific coral reef biodiversity. Ecology Letters 8:643-651.

Bjorholm, S., J.-C. Svenning, W. J. Baker, F. Skov, and H. Balsev. 2006. Historical legacies in the geographical diversity patterns of New World palm (Arecaceae) subfamilies. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 151:113-125.

Bokma, F., and M. Mönkkönen. 2000. The mid-domain effect and the longitudinal dimension of continents. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:289.

Bokma, F., J. Bokma, and M. Mönkkönen. 2001. Random processes and geographic species richness patterns: why so few species in the north. Ecography 24:43-49.

Brayard, A., G. Escarguel, and H. Bucher. 2005. Latitudinal gradient of taxonomic richness: combined outcome of temperature and geographic mid-domains effects? Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43:178–188.

Cardelus, C., R. K. Colwell, and J. E. Watkins, Jr. 2006. Vascular epiphyte distribution patterns: explaining the mid-elevation richness peak. J. Ecology 94:144-156.

Carpenter, C. 2005. The environmental control of plant species density on a Himalayan elevation gradient. Journal of Biogeography 32:999-1018.

Colwell, R. K., and D. C. Lees. 2000. The mid-domain effect: geometric constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:70-76.

Colwell, R. K., and D. C. Lees. 2000. Reply from R. K. Colwell and D. C. Lees. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:289.

Colwell, R. K., and G. C. Hurtt. 1994. Nonbiological gradients in species richness and a spurious Rapoport effect. American Naturalist 144:570-595.

Colwell, R. K., C. Rahbek, and N. Gotelli. 2004. The mid-domain effect and species richness patterns: what have we learned so far? American Naturalist 163:E1-E23.

Colwell, R. K., C. Rahbek, and N. Gotelli. 2005. The mid-domain effect: there's a baby in the bathwater. American Naturalist 166:E149–E154.

Connolly, S. R. 2005. Process-based models of species distributions and the mid-domain effect. American Naturalist 166:1-11.

Connolly, S. R., and D. R. Bellwood. 2003. Indo-Pacific biodiversity of coral reefs: deviations from a mid-domain model. Ecology 84:2178–2190.

Currie, D. J., and J. T. Kerr. 2007. Testing, as opposed to supporting, the Mid-domain Hypothesis: a response to Lees and Colwell (2007). Ecology Letters 10:E9-E10.

Davies, T. J., R. Grenyer, and J. L. Gittleman. 2005. Phylogeny can make the mid-domain effect an inappropriate null model. Biology Letters:doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0297.

Diniz-Filho, J. A. F., and N. M. Torres. 2002. Rapoport effect in South American Carnivora (Mammalia): null models under geometric and phylogenetic constraints. Brazilian Journal of Biology 62:437-444.

Diniz-Filho, J. A. F., C. E. R. de Sant'Ana, M. C. de Souza, and T. F. L. V. B. Rangel. 2002. Null models and spatial patterns of species richness in South American birds of prey. Ecology Letters 5:47-55.

Dunn, R. R., R. K. Colwell, and C. Nilsson. 2006. The river domain: why are there more species halfway up the river? Ecography 29:251-259.

Dunn, R. R., C. M. McCain, and N. Sanders. 2007. When does diversity fit null model predictions? Scale and range size mediate the mid-domain effect. Global Ecology & Biogeography 3:305-312.

Ellison, A. M. 2002. Macroecology of mangroves: largescale patterns and processes in tropical coastal forests. Trees: Structure and Function 16:181-194.

Ferrer-Castan, D., and O. R. Vetaas. 2005. Pteridophyte richness, climate and topography in the Iberian Peninsula: comparing spatial and nonspatial models of richness patterns. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14:155-165.

Fleishman, E., G. T. Austin, and A. D. Weiss. 1998. An empirical test of Rapoport's rule: Elevational gradients in montane butterfly communities. Ecology 79:2482-2493.

Fu, C., X. Hua, J. Li, Z. Chang, Z. Pu, and J. Chen. 2006. Elevational patterns of frog species richness and endemic richness in the Hengduan Mountains, China: geometric contraints, area and climate effects. Ecography 29:919-927.

Godfray, H. C., and J. H. Lawton. 2001. Scale and species numbers. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16:400-404.

Grytnes, J. A. 2003. Ecological interpretations of the mid-domain effect. Ecology Letters 6:883-888

Grytnes, J. A. 2003. Species-richness patterns of vascular plants along several altitudinal transects in Norway. Ecography 26:291-300 .

Grytnes, J. A., and O. R. Vetaas. 2002. Species richness and altitude: a comparison between null models and interpolated plant species richness along the Himalayan altitudinal gradient, Nepal. American Naturalist 159:294-304.

Hawkins, B. A., and J. A. F. Diniz-Filho. 2002. The mid-domain effect cannot explain the diversity gradient of Nearctic birds. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11:419-426.

Hawkins, B. A., J. A. F. Diniz-Filho, and A. E. Weis. 2005. The mid-domain effect and diversity gradients: is there anything to learn. American Naturalist 166:E140-E143.

Hernandez, C. E., R. A. Moreno, and N. Rozbaczylo. 2005. Biogeographical patterns and Rapoport's rule in southeastern Pacific benthic polychaetes of the Chilean coast. Ecography 28:363-373.

Herzog, S. K., M. Kessler, and K. Bach. 2005. The elevational gradient in Andean bird species richness at the local scale: a foothill peak and a high-elevation plateau. Ecography 28:209-222.

Hillebrand, H. 2004. On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. American Naturalist 163:192-211.

Jetz, W., and C. Rahbek. 2001. Geometric constraints explain much of the species richness pattern in African birds. PNAS 98:5661-5666.

Jetz, W., and C. Rahbek. 2002. Geographic range size and determinants avian species richness. Science 279:1548-1551.

Jetz, W., C. Rahbek, and R. K. Colwell. 2004. The coincidence of rarity and richness and the potential signature of history in centres of endemism. Ecology Letters 7:1180-1191.

Kerr, J. T., M. Perring, and D. J. Currie. 2006. The missing Madagascan mid-domain effect. Ecology Letters 9:149–159.

Kessler, M. 2001. Patterns of diversity and range size of selected plant groups along an elevational transect in the Bolivian Andes. Biodiversity and Conservation 10:1897-1921.

Kluge, J., M. Kessler, and R. R. Dunn. 2006. What drives elevational patterns of diversity? A test of geometric constraints, climate and species pool effects for pteridophytes on an elevational gradient in Costa Rica. Global Ecology & Biogeography DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-822x.2006.00223.x.

Koleff, P., and K. J. Gaston. 2001. Latitudinal gradients in diversity: real patterns and random models. Ecography 24: 341-351.

Laurie, H., and J. A. Silander, Jr. 2002. Geometric constraints and spatial patterns of species richness: critique of range-based models. Diversity and Distributions 8: 351-364.

Lees, D. C. 1996. The Périnet effect? Diversity gradients in an adaptive radiation of butterflies in Madagascar (Satyrinae: Mycalesina) compared with other rainforest taxa, Pages 479-490 in W. R. Lourenço, ed. Biogéographie de Madagascar. Paris, Editions de l'ORSTOM.

Lees, D. C., and R. K. Colwell. 2007. A strong Madagascan rainforest MDE and no equatorward increase in species richness: Re-analysis of 'The missing Madagascan mid-domain effect', by Kerr J.T., Perring M. & Currie D.J (Ecology Letters 9:149-159, 2006). Ecology Letters 10:E4-E8.

Lees, D. C., C. Kremen, and L. Andriamampianina. 1999. A null model for species richness gradients: bounded range overlap of butterflies and other rainforest endemics in Madagascar. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 67:529-584.

Lusk, C. H., R. L. Chazdon, and G. Hofmann. 2006. A bounded null model explains juvenile tree community structure along light availability gradients in a temperate rain forest. Oikos 112:131-137.

Lyons, S. K., and M. R. Willig. 1997. Latitudinal patterns of range size: methodological concerns and empirical evaluations for New World bats and marsupials. Oikos 79:568-580.

McCain, C. M. 2003. North American desert rodents: a test of the mid-domain effect in species richness. Journal of Mammalogy 84:967-980.

McCain, C. M. 2004. The mid-domain effect applied to elevational gradients: species richness of small mammals in Costa Rica. Journal of Biogeography 31:19-31.

McCain, C. M. 2005. Elevational gradients in diversity of small mammals. Ecology 86:366–372.

McCain, C. M. 2007. Could temperature and water availability drive elevational species richness patterns? A global case study for bats. Global Ecology & Biogeography 16:1-13.

McClain, C. R., and R. J. Etter. 2005. Mid-domain models as bathymetric diversity gradients. Oikos 109:555-566.

Mora, C., and D. R. Robertson. 2005. Causes of latitudinal gradients in species richness: a test with fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. Ecology 86:1771-1782.

Mora, C., P. M. Chittaro, P. F. Sale, J. P. Kritzer, and S. A. Ludsin. 2003. Patterns and processes in reef fish diversity. Nature 421:933-936.

Morales, M. A., G. J. Dodge, and D. W. Inouye. 2004. A phenological mid-domain effect in flowering diversity. Oecologia 142:83-89.

Moreno, R. A. M., C. E. Hernandez, and M. M. Rivadeneira. 2006. Patterns of endemism in southeastern Pacific benthic polychaetes of the Chilean coast. Journal of Biogeography 33:750–759.

Naniwadekar, R., and K. Vasudevan. 2007. Patterns in diversity of anurans along an elevational gradient in the Western Ghats, South India. J. Biogeography 34:842–853.

Oommen, M. A., and K. Shankar. 2005. Elevational species richness patterns emerge from multiple local mechanisms in Himalayan woody plants. Ecology 86:3039-3047.

Pimm, S. L., and J. H. Brown. 2004. Domains of diversity. Science 304:831-833.

Pineda, J., and H. Caswell. 1998. Bathymetric species-diversity patterns and boundary constraints on vertical range distributions. Deep-Sea Research II 45:83-101.

Rahbek, C. 1997. The relationship between area, elevation and regional species richness in Neotropical birds. American Naturalist 149:875-902.

Rangel, T. F. L. V. B., and J. A. F. Diniz-Filho. 2003. Spatial patterns in species richness and the geometric constraint simulation model: a global analysis of mid-domain effect in Falconiformes. Acta Oecologica 24:203-207.

Rangel, T. F. L. V. B., and J. A. F. Diniz-Filho. 2004. Worldwide patterns in species richness of Falconiformes: analytical null models, geometric constraints, and the mid-domain effect. Brazilian journal of biology 64:299-308.

Rangel, T. F. L. V. B., and J. A. F. Diniz-Filho. 2005. An evolutionary tolerance model explaining spatial patterns in species richness under environmental gradients and geometric constraints. Ecography 28:253-263.

Rangel, T. F. L. V. B., and J. A. F. Diniz-Filho. 2005. Neutral community dynamics, the mid-domain effect and spatial patterns in species richness. Ecology Letters 8:783-790.

Rodriguez, P., and H. T. Arita. 2004. Beta diversity and latitude in North American mammals: testing the hypothesis of covariation. Ecography 27:1-11.

Romdal, T. S., R. K. Colwell, and C. Rahbek. 2005. The influence of band sum area, domain extent and range sizes on the latitudinal mid-domain effect. Ecology 86:235-244.

Sandel, B. S., and M. J. McKone. 2006. Reconsidering null models of diversity: Do geometric constraints on species ranges necessarily cause a mid-domain effect? Diversity and Distributions 12:467–474.

Sanders, N. 2002. Elevational gradients in ant species richness: area, geometry, and Rapoport's rule. Ecography 25:25-32.

Sanders, N., J.-P. Lessard, and R. R. Dunn. 2007. Temperature, but not productivity or geometry, predicts elevational diversity gradients in ants across spatial grains. Global Ecology & Biogeography DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2007.00316.x.

Smith, K. F., and J. H. Brown. 2002. Patterns of diversity, depth range and body size among pelagic fishes along a gradient of depth. Global Ecology & Biogeography 11:313-322.

Storch, D., R. G. Davies, S. Zajicek, C. D. L. Orme, V. Olson, G. H. Thomas, T. S. Ding, P. C. Rasmussen, R. S. Ridgely, P. M. Bennett, T. M. Blackburn, I. P. F. Owens, and K. J. Gaston. 2006. Energy, range dynamics and global species richness patterns: reconciling mid-domain effects and environmental determinants of avian diversity. Ecology Letters 9:1308-1320.

Tiwari, M., K. A. Bjorndal, A. B. Bolten, and B. M. Bolker. 2005. Intraspecific application of the mid-domain effect model: spatial and temporal nest distributions of green turtles, Chelonia mydas, at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Ecology Letters 8:918-924.

Veech, J. A. 2000. A null model for detecting nonrandom patterns of species richness along spatial gradients. Ecology 81:1143-1149.

Vetaas, O. R., and J. A. Grytnes. 2002. Distribution of vascular plant species richness and endemic richness along the Himalayan elevation gradient in Nepal. Global Ecology & Biogeography 11:291-301.

Watkins, J. E., Jr., C. Cardelús, R. C. Moran, and R. K. Colwell. 2006. Diversity and distribution of ferns along an elevational gradient in Costa Rica. American Journal of Botany 93:73-83.

Willig, M. R., and S. K. Lyons. 1998. An analytical model of latitudinal gradients of species richness with an empirical test for marsupials and bats in the New World. Oikos 81:93-98.

Willig, M. R., D. M. Kaufmann, and R. D. Stevens. 2003. Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale and synthesis. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 34:273-309.

Zapata, F. A., K. J. Gaston, and S. L. Chown. 2003. Mid-domain models of species richness gradients: assumptions, methods and evidence. J. Animal Ecology 72:677-690.

Zapata, F. A., K. J. Gaston, and S. L. Chown. 2005. The mid-domain effect revisited. American Naturalist 166:E144-E148.


Robert K. Colwell